Symbolism was an essential part of the ancient art of the Orient and of the medieval tradition in the West. It has been lately revived in the study of the unconscious, both directly in the field of dreams, visions and psycho-analysis and indirectly in art and poetry.
At the same time, the Gestalt theory of Kohler and Kolfka, in pointing out the autonomy of “facts and expression” and the parallel between the physical and the spiritual has given renewed significance to the ancient principle of the Tabula smaragdina, “What is above is what is bellow.”
The basis aim of this work is to create a “centre” of general reference of symbological studies by clarifying the unvarying essential meaning of every symbol. The author uses the comparative method, specifying the precise sources of information taken from a great number of widely varying fields.